عنوان مقاله [English]
Hadith as the second source of evidence for inferring shari’a rulings has always been of interest to jurists and given to the need to prove the authenticity of hadiths and its high importance in jurisprudential discourses, Islamic scholars and jurists have published books throughout history to confront the fabrication and distortion of hadiths. One of the first and most important books in this regard is the book Al-Akhbār al-Dakhīla by Mouhammad Taqī Shūshtarī, a contemporary Iranian scholar. The purpose of this study is to investigate Shūshtarī’s criteria for considering hadiths as fabricated.
This research, which has been done with an analytical-descriptive method, while identifying the most important criteria of the author and providing examples of hadiths from the book, shows that the author has studied the hadiths from different angles. He has criticized textual issues such as incompatibility with the Qur’an, definite tradition, reason, history, science, famous jurisprudential rulings and theological beliefs, and has also criticized the sanad (chain of transmission) of hadiths such as the delving into the transmitter’s class, the weakness of the sanad and other biographical instances. In this process, he has obsessively and carefully tried to identify and introduce fabricated hadiths. However, such instances as the lack of accurate categorization (tabwīb), the lack of unity of procedure, considering the author’s viewpoint as definite in cases where only one possibility can be deduced from his words are deficiencies of the book.